用os.environ获取环境变量

2020年10月13日 / 4次阅读 / Last Modified 2020年10月14日
CGIos模块

python启动后,os.environ就是环境变量,它是一个dict对象。

>>> import os
>>> for k,v in os.environ.items():
...     print(k + ' = ' + v)
...
SHELL = /bin/bash
LC_ADDRESS = zh_CN.UTF-8
LC_NAME = zh_CN.UTF-8
LC_MONETARY = zh_CN.UTF-8
PWD = /home/xinlin/repos/cook/cgi
LOGNAME = xinlin
XDG_SESSION_TYPE = tty
MOTD_SHOWN = pam
HOME = /home/xinlin
LC_PAPER = zh_CN.UTF-8
LANG = en_US.UTF-8
LS_COLORS = rs=0:di=01;34:ln=01;36:mh=00:pi=40;33:so=01;35:do=01;35:bd=40;33;01:cd=40;33;01:or=40;31;01:mi=00:su=37;41:sg=30;43:ca=30;41:tw=30;42:ow=34;42:st=37;44:ex=01;32:*.tar=01;31:*.tgz=01;31:*.arc=01;31:*.arj=01;31:*.taz=01;31:*.lha=01;31:*.lz4=01;31:*.lzh=01;31:*.lzma=01;31:*.tlz=01;31:*.txz=01;31:*.tzo=01;31:*.t7z=01;31:*.zip=01;31:*.z=01;31:*.dz=01;31:*.gz=01;31:*.lrz=01;31:*.lz=01;31:*.lzo=01;31:*.xz=01;31:*.zst=01;31:*.tzst=01;31:*.bz2=01;31:*.bz=01;31:*.tbz=01;31:*.tbz2=01;31:*.tz=01;31:*.deb=01;31:*.rpm=01;31:*.jar=01;31:*.war=01;31:*.ear=01;31:*.sar=01;31:*.rar=01;31:*.alz=01;31:*.ace=01;31:*.zoo=01;31:*.cpio=01;31:*.7z=01;31:*.rz=01;31:*.cab=01;31:*.wim=01;31:*.swm=01;31:*.dwm=01;31:*.esd=01;31:*.jpg=01;35:*.jpeg=01;35:*.mjpg=01;35:*.mjpeg=01;35:*.gif=01;35:*.bmp=01;35:*.pbm=01;35:*.pgm=01;35:*.ppm=01;35:*.tga=01;35:*.xbm=01;35:*.xpm=01;35:*.tif=01;35:*.tiff=01;35:*.png=01;35:*.svg=01;35:*.svgz=01;35:*.mng=01;35:*.pcx=01;35:*.mov=01;35:*.mpg=01;35:*.mpeg=01;35:*.m2v=01;35:*.mkv=01;35:*.webm=01;35:*.ogm=01;35:*.mp4=01;35:*.m4v=01;35:*.mp4v=01;35:*.vob=01;35:*.qt=01;35:*.nuv=01;35:*.wmv=01;35:*.asf=01;35:*.rm=01;35:*.rmvb=01;35:*.flc=01;35:*.avi=01;35:*.fli=01;35:*.flv=01;35:*.gl=01;35:*.dl=01;35:*.xcf=01;35:*.xwd=01;35:*.yuv=01;35:*.cgm=01;35:*.emf=01;35:*.ogv=01;35:*.ogx=01;35:*.aac=00;36:*.au=00;36:*.flac=00;36:*.m4a=00;36:*.mid=00;36:*.midi=00;36:*.mka=00;36:*.mp3=00;36:*.mpc=00;36:*.ogg=00;36:*.ra=00;36:*.wav=00;36:*.oga=00;36:*.opus=00;36:*.spx=00;36:*.xspf=00;36:
SSH_CONNECTION = 192.168.1.199 62178 192.168.1.198 22
LESSCLOSE = /usr/bin/lesspipe %s %s
XDG_SESSION_CLASS = user
LC_IDENTIFICATION = zh_CN.UTF-8
TERM = xterm
LESSOPEN = | /usr/bin/lesspipe %s
USER = xinlin
DISPLAY = localhost:10.0
SHLVL = 1
LC_TELEPHONE = zh_CN.UTF-8
LC_MEASUREMENT = zh_CN.UTF-8
XDG_SESSION_ID = 50
XDG_RUNTIME_DIR = /run/user/1000
SSH_CLIENT = 192.168.1.199 62178 22
LC_TIME = zh_CN.UTF-8
XDG_DATA_DIRS = /usr/local/share:/usr/share:/var/lib/snapd/desktop
PATH = /home/xinlin/.local/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/games:/usr/local/games:/snap/bin
DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS = unix:path=/run/user/1000/bus
SSH_TTY = /dev/pts/1
LC_NUMERIC = zh_CN.UTF-8
OLDPWD = /home/xinlin/repos/cook/cgi
_ = /usr/bin/python3

不同的运行环境,环境变量是不同的,下面是CGI执行环境:

HTTP_HOST = 192.168.1.198
HTTP_USER_AGENT = Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; Win64; x64; rv:82.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/82.0
HTTP_ACCEPT = text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/webp,*/*;q=0.8
HTTP_ACCEPT_LANGUAGE = en-US,en;q=0.5
HTTP_ACCEPT_ENCODING = gzip, deflate
HTTP_CONNECTION = keep-alive
HTTP_UPGRADE_INSECURE_REQUESTS = 1
HTTP_CACHE_CONTROL = max-age=0
PATH = /usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin:/snap/bin
LD_LIBRARY_PATH = /usr/local/apache2.4.46/lib
SERVER_SIGNATURE = 
SERVER_SOFTWARE = Apache/2.4.46 (Unix)
SERVER_NAME = 192.168.1.198
SERVER_ADDR = 192.168.1.198
SERVER_PORT = 80
REMOTE_ADDR = 192.168.1.199
DOCUMENT_ROOT = /usr/local/apache2.4.46/htdocs
REQUEST_SCHEME = http
CONTEXT_PREFIX = /cgi/
CONTEXT_DOCUMENT_ROOT = /home/xinlin/repos/cook/cgi/
SERVER_ADMIN = you@example.com
SCRIPT_FILENAME = /home/xinlin/repos/cook/cgi/test.py
REMOTE_PORT = 63771
GATEWAY_INTERFACE = CGI/1.1
SERVER_PROTOCOL = HTTP/1.1
REQUEST_METHOD = GET
QUERY_STRING = 
REQUEST_URI = /cgi/test.py
SCRIPT_NAME = /cgi/test.py
LC_CTYPE = C.UTF-8

os.environ是dict,sys.path是list

再来一个case,用export命令自定义一个环境变量:

$ export KK=pynote.net
$ echo $KK
pynote.net
$ python3 -q
>>> import os
>>> os.environ['KK']
'pynote.net'

其实有很多概念,接触多了就不神秘了。

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